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The refuseniks and anti-vaxxers with their drive-by opinions, are simply an extension of the narcissistic, selfie, ‘I know my rights’ mindset that has been inculcated into a couple of generations and best understood through the lens of the Dunning-Kruger effect, (identified by two social psychologists David Dunning and Justin Kruger) and whereby people believe they are more knowledgeable, smarter and capable, than they actually are.


Essentially, people who don’t possess the skills or self awareness required to recognise their own incompetence, thereby leading them to overestimate their own knowledge and ability.


Charles Darwin understood this mindset when he wrote in the Descent of Man that: “Ignorance more frequently begets confidence than does knowledge.”